Diuretics are therapeutic medications effective in increasing the output of urine and the frequency of urination. In terms of diuretics’ working mechanism, they are called water pills. Diuretic drugs act by making the kidneys increase sodium amount in the urine. While sodium concentration raises, more water can be absorbed from the blood, and this decreases the pressure on the blood vessels walls.
The process taking place in the body after taking diuretic drugs is the following: it helps the blood vessels to relax. Diuretic medicines are taken to treat different health problems including hypertension, edema (water retention), kidney disorders, liver cirrhosis, glaucoma.
The forms of diuretic drugs which work effectively are a great number, in which the mostly used are osmotic diuretics, loop diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics and thiazides. The ingredients and formulations of the diuretics differ from each other. Depending on the contents concentration, different diuretics work differently. More precisely, possible adverse effects as well as precautions of diuretics are different for various types.
Loop diuretics act on the loop of Henle of kidneys, thus lowering the absorption of chloride and sodium. This process disturbs such ions absorption as calcium and magnesium leading to an increased and dilute production of urine. Thereby, loop diuretic drugs reduce the content of fluid in the blood and besides enhance renal blood circulation.
Thiazides are moderately potent water pills. Mostly doctors prescribe particular dose of thiazides to fight the first signs of hypertension, pulmonary edema which means water retention in lungs and several heart disorders. They affect the kidney distal convoluted tubule so that to improve the production of urine.
Osmotic diuretics are composed in such a mode so that the levels of blood sugar can increase temporarily. Thus the concentration of blood sugar is higher than the level which the kidneys are able to absorb. The overall process speeds water absorption by the kidneys provoking an increased urination.
Potassium sparing water pills raise urine production, in such a way lowering potassium concentration which is lost in the urine. Potassium represents one of the most important electrolytes necessary to normalize blood pressure and maintain the health of your heart. Potassium level in the body gets balanced by raising sodium concentration that is excreted in the body urine.